When the autumn booster programme begins next month, many people are likely to receive Moderna’s new bivalent vaccine, designed to protect against the original Covid strain and the more transmissible Omicron variant. As Covid continues to evolve, so will vaccination strategies. Here we look at some of the developments in the pipeline.
In the past two years we have watched natural selection in action, with successive strains of Covid emerging, each more transmissible and better able to evade previous immunity than the last. To combat this, vaccine manufacturers have updated vaccines to more closely match strains in circulation, with Moderna’s bivalent vaccine the first to be approved that targets two strains simultaneously (the original variant and Omicron). A Pfizer/BioNTech bivalent vaccine is also under review. These updated vaccines are likely to be more effective (we have yet to get conclusive efficacy data), so they will be valuable for ensuring that people at greatest risk of severe illness remain protected against hospitalisation and death. But there are diminishing returns on deploying these vaccines in the wider population because they do not prevent infection and only prevent symptomatic disease for a few months.
The first generation of Covid vaccines all work by boosting circulating antibodies. But they do little to stimulate antibodies in the tissues that line the nose and airways, and this so-called mucosal immunity is the body’s first line of defence against respiratory infection. This is considered a major weakness of current Covid vaccines and could explain why current vaccines protect against illness and death but not against infection. Scientists hope nasal vaccines, similar to those used for seasonal flu, could overcome this shortcoming and help weaken the chain of transmission and reduce the continued impact of Covid. There are at least 12 nasal vaccines in clinical development, with four in phase 3 trials, and many view an effective nasal vaccine as the next major prize for vaccine research.
One company, Vaxart, has developed a tablet that showed promising results in a small trial last month. The aspirin-sized pill uses an adenovirus, similar to the delivery system used by the Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccine, to deliver instructions for making the Covid spike protein to cells in the gut. This stimulates the release of antibodies in the nose and mouth. In the trial, nearly half of volunteers showed higher levels of antibodies in nasal and saliva samples than people whose antibodies were the result of a previous Covid infection. The enhanced antibody levels lasted for six months, according to the trial results. A phase 2 trial with 900 participants is under way and expected to report next year.
Last month there was a call from the White House to develop vaccines designed to protect against future Covid-19 variants, and even unknown coronaviruses that could emerge in the future. At the more modest end of the spectrum – although still a major advance on current vaccines – scientists are working on vaccines with broad immunity against current and future Covid-19 strains. These would be designed to sidestep the continual game of catchup with newly emerging variants.
The Walter Reed Army Institute of Research in the US has the only pan-coronavirus vaccine candidate of this type in clinical trials. Other teams are exploring the even more ambitious goal of developing a vaccine that would work for the entire coronavirus family, including the viruses that cause Mers, Sars and seasonal colds. However, achieving this is some way off and is perhaps best viewed as pandemic preparedness research rather than something likely to yield a new Covid vaccine that could be widely deployed in the next year.
Study suggests people who have had COVID-19 benefit from vaccination, even if they’ve delayed it. Immunity from COVID-19 appears to gather strength with more time between vaccination and infection, a new laboratory study from researchers at [...]
The incorporation of exotic DNA from wild relatives into wheat results in a remarkable yield increase of up to 50%, even in hot weather, surpassing elite lines without these genes. Amid a year of [...]
Australia has become the first country to recognise psychedelics as medicines, after the Therapeutic Goods Administration took researchers by surprise and approved the psychedelic substances in magic mushrooms and MDMA for use by people [...]
In a new study, scientists with the University of Florida have found that a combination of silver nanoparticles and antibiotics is effective against antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The researchers hope to turn this discovery into viable [...]
Peritoneal cancer is difficult to treat and has a poor survival prognosis. But a new and effective nanomedicine delivery system is offering some hope. The company is called NaDeNo and is well underway with [...]
According to a new study by researchers at Penn Medicine, ketamine, which is well-known as an anesthetic and is becoming increasingly popular as an antidepressant, dramatically reorganizes activity in the brain, almost as if [...]
A new immunotherapy releases cancer-killing cytokines only within the tumor. Researchers at the University of California San Francisco (UCSF) have developed a new T cell-based immunotherapy that selectively targets cancer cells, producing a powerful anti-cancer cytokine [...]
An AI was tasked with creating proteins with anti-microbial properties. Researchers then created a subset of the proteins and found some did the job. An AI has designed anti-microbial proteins that were then tested [...]
Treating cancer with combinations of drugs can be more effective than using a single drug. However, figuring out the optimal combination of drugs, and making sure that all of the drugs reach the right [...]
By one unique metric, we could approach technological singularity by the end of this decade, if not sooner. A translation company developed a metric, Time to Edit (TTE), to calculate the time it takes for professional [...]
Phase transition in early universe changes strength of interaction between dark and normal matter. Dark matter remains one of the greatest mysteries of modern physics. It is clear that it must exist, because without [...]
Summary: Researchers have developed a new family of nano-scale capsules capable of carrying CRISPR gene editing tools to different organs of the body before harmlessly dissolving. The capsules were able to enter the brains of [...]
An enzyme that defends human cells against viruses can help drive cancer evolution towards greater malignancy by causing myriad mutations in cancer cells, according to a study led by investigators at Weill Cornell Medicine. The [...]
Using a mouse model, Japanese researchers unleash the likely mechanism of action of Actinidia arguta (sarunashi) juice on lung cancer development. Lung cancer is a leading cause of death in Japan and across the [...]
When used as wearable medical devices, stretchy, flexible gas sensors can identify health conditions or issues by detecting oxygen or carbon dioxide levels in the breath or sweat. They also are useful for monitoring [...]
Novel drugs, such as vaccines against covid-19, among others, are based on drug transport using nanoparticles. Whether this drug transport is negatively influenced by an accumulation of blood proteins on the nanoparticle’s surface was [...]