Depositing nanoparticles using the NL50 is now simpler than ever with the pre-loaded optimized recipes for a variety of frequently used materials, including Au, Ag, Pt and Cu.
These optimized recipes generate high-quality nano-coatings with premium deposition rates for each material. Moreover, the NL50 also enables the user to vary the size distribution of the deposited nanoparticles by changing two simple parameters – the argon gas flow and the magnetron current (power).
Both the argon gas flow and the magnetron current influence the thermodynamics within the vacuum chamber. Modifying these parameters can either encourage or hinder nanoparticle growth, thus changing the range of nanoparticle sizes produced.
Figure 1. General trend for nanoparticle size with increasing magnetron power or gas flow. Image Credit: Nikalyte Ltd
The Effect of Magnetron Current (Power)
When increasing the magnetron current, the magnetron power also rises, which in turn sputters more material from the target. This subsequent increase in the material made available will generally increase the number of nanoparticles generated (increase the deposition rate) as well as enhancing the size of the nanoparticles produced.
The Effect of Changing the Ar Gas Flow
The effect of modifying the Ar gas flow is a bit more complicated. A rise in the flow of argon will increase the amount of sputtered material ready to form nanoparticles.
However, as the gas flow and pressure rise, the argon ions progressively cool (thermalize) the nanoparticles through inelastic collisions, thus inhibiting nanoparticle growth.
Therefore, it is not unusual to see both an increase and decrease in nanoparticle size with argon gas flow. While the change in behavior is dependent on the material, users are advised to experiment with the process conditions to identify the optimum gas flow and magnetron current for their specific material requirements.
Changing the Nanoparticle Size with the NL50
To adjust the process conditions, the user simply alters the gas flow or current in STEP 4 on the setup Wizard, as displayed in Figure 2. The result of changing the current or the gas flow on the nanoparticle size distribution is also shown for nickel in Figure 2.
Figure 2. User Interface of NL50 indicating current and gas flow control options (top), Effect of Magnetron current on nanoparticle size distribution for Ni (bottom left) and Effect of Argon gas flow on nanoparticle size distribution (bottom right). Image Credit: Nikalyte Ltd
Figure 2 exhibits a change in the nickel nanoparticle distribution to larger sizes with increasing current, as anticipated in Figure 1.
The decline in signal witnessed at 300mA occurs when the plasma temperature produced at high magnetron currents is too great for maximum nickel nanoparticle growth, demonstrating that it may be necessary to make a choice between deposition rate and nanoparticle size.
The result of changing the Ar gas flow for nickel neatly demonstrates the competing processes of the increased formation of sputtered material for nanoparticle creation as Ar ions increasingly suppress nanoparticle growth.
Figure 2 displays the shift to smaller nickel nanoparticle sizes as the Ar gas flow is increased. Initially, the number of nanoparticles rises as the gas flow is increased, demonstrating that additional smaller nanoparticles are produced with the peak deposition rate taking place at 40sccm.
Continuing to increase the gas flow results in a decrease in both the size and number of nanoparticles as thermalization of the nanoparticles becomes more dominant.
When covid-19 struck Europe in March 2020, hospitals were plunged into a health crisis that was still badly understood. “Doctors really didn’t have a clue how to manage these patients,” says Laure Wynants, an [...]
Pfizer found to be 88 per cent effective at preventing symptomatic disease from delta variant. Two doses of Pfizer-BioNTech or AstraZeneca-Oxford's COVID-19 vaccines are nearly as effective against the highly transmissible delta coronavirus variant [...]
South African pharmaceutical company Aspen said Monday it was releasing its first batch of African-produced COVID-19 vaccines under a licensing deal with the US giant Johnson & Johnson. The Durban-based company said the first [...]
Since the coronavirus pandemic shut down the world, scientists have clamored to develop vaccines to prevent the spread and medicines that will cure the sick. But a virus’ main goal is to replicate and [...]
The highly transmissible delta variant of SARS-CoV-2, the coronavirus causing the disease COVID-19, is now present in 124 countries and will become the dominant strain globally in the coming months as it is outcompeting [...]
Scientists have backed proposals for Covid boosters in the autumn after blood tests on hundreds of people revealed that protective antibodies can wane substantially within weeks of second vaccine shots being given. Falls in [...]
Researchers in the United States have conducted a study showing that the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines developed by Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna generate a coordinated adaptive immune response that is capable of eliciting recall [...]
CSIRO, Australia's national science agency, played an important role in evaluating heat-tolerant COVID-19 vaccine formulations developed by the Indian Institute of Science (IISc) and biotech start-up Mynvax—against all current SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. Published [...]
Podcast – Nanovisaging 2040 How Synergies between Nanotechnology, Nanomedicine, and AI might Benefit Humanity
Frank Boehm (NanoApps Medical Inc. Founder) in discussion with Nana Kay in a Wealth Secrets podcast. EP 19. Nanovisaging 2040. From Nana Kay: Nanovisaging 2040: How Synergies between Nanotechnology, Nanomedicine, and AI might Benefit [...]
Canada, like several other countries, has been mixing and matching COVID-19 vaccines for weeks amid safety concerns over the AstraZeneca shot. On Monday, the chief scientist at the World Health Organization (WHO) cautioned against that approach, calling [...]
Scientists have harnessed CRISPR gene-editing technology to block the replication of the novel coronavirus in human cells — an approach that could one day serve as a new treatment for COVID-19. However, the study was performed [...]
A recent study by scientists from Japanese universities has shown that the shape of cell-derived nanoparticles, known as "extracellular vesicles" (EVs), in body fluids could be a biomarker for identifying types of cancer. In [...]
An important lesson for vaccine design Australian scientists researching how our immune system responds to COVID-19 have revealed that those infected by early variants in 2020 produced sustained antibodies, however, these antibodies are not [...]
1. How COVID-19 is affecting the globe Confirmed cases of COVID-19 have passed 185 million globally, according to Johns Hopkins University. The number of confirmed deaths stands at more than 4 million. More than 3.29 [...]
The World Health Organization (WHO) has added another COVID strain to its list of coronavirus variants to keep an eye on: the COVID-19 Lambda variant. This particular variant has now spread to more than two dozen [...]