Cell membrane-coated nanoparticles, applied in targeted drug delivery strategies, combine the intrinsic advantages of synthetic nanoparticles and cell membranes. Although stem cell-based delivery systems were highlighted for their targeting capability in tumor therapy, inappropriate stem cells may promote tumor growth.
A review published in the journal Materials Today Bio summarized the role of stem cell membrane-camouflaged targeted delivery system in tumor therapy and focused on the underlying mechanisms of stem cell homing toward target tumors. Nanoparticle-coated stem cell membranes have enhanced targetability, biocompatibility, and drug loading capacity.
Furthermore, the clinical applications of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were investigated as membrane-camouflaged targeted delivery systems for their anti-tumor therapies. In concurrence, the stem cell membrane-coated nanoparticles have immense prospects in tumor therapy.
Cell Membrane-Coated Nanoparticles Towards Tumor Therapy
Cell-based targeted delivery systems have low immunogenicity and toxicity, innate targeting capability, ability to integrate receptors, and long circulation time. Cells such as red blood cells, platelets, stem cells, tumor cells, immune cells, and even viral/bacterial cells can serve as effective natural vesicles.
MSCs derived from the umbilical cord (UC-MSCs), bone marrow (BM-MSCs), and adipose tissue (ATMSCs) are utilized in clinical applications. However, iPSCs are preferable over MSCs in clinical applications due to their easy fetch by transcription factor-based reprogramming of differentiation of somatic cells.
Stem cells (MSCs/ iPSCs) can be easily isolated and used as drug delivery systems for tumor therapy. Stem cell-based delivery systems have inflammation or tumor lesions targeting capacity. However, stem cells are often entrapped in the lung due to their size, resulting in microembolism.
Cell membrane-coated nanoparticles are applied in targeted delivery strategies. To this end, stem cell membrane-coated nanoparticles have tremendous prospects in biomedical applications. Although previous reports mentioned the role of cell membrane-coated nanocarriers in tumor therapy, delivery systems based on stem cell membranes have not been explored extensively.
Stem Cell Membrane-Coated Nanoparticles for Anti-Tumor Therapy
Stem cell membrane-coated nanoparticles obtained from stem cells have complex functioning and can achieve biological interfacing. Consequently, stem cell membrane-coated nanoparticles served as novel drug delivery systems that could effectively target the tumor.
Previous reports mentioned the preparation of doxorubicin (DOX) loaded, poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) coated MSC membrane-based nanovesicles, which showed higher cellular uptake than their PLGA uncoated counterparts. Similarly, the DOX-loaded MSC membrane-coated gelatin nanogels showed enhanced storage stability and sustained drug release.
Thus, the stem cell membrane-coated nanoparticles served as novel carriers for stem cells and facilitated the targeted delivery of the drugs at the tumor site. Since the stem cell membrane-coated nanoparticles had good targeting and penetration abilities, they enhanced the efficiency of chemotherapeutic agents in tumor therapy and minimized the side effects.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) based photodynamic therapy (PDT) is mediated by photosensitizers with laser irradiations. Previous reports mentioned the development of MSC membrane-based mesoporous silica up-conversion (SUCNPs@mSiO2) nanoparticles that efficiently targeted the tumor due to their high affinity after being coated with MSC membrane.
These cell membrane-coated nanoparticles showed high cytocompatibility (with hepatocyte cells) and hemocompatibility (with blood). Moreover, the SUCNPs@mSiO2 nanoparticles-based PDT therapy under 980-nanometer laser irradiations could inhibit the tumors in vivo and in vitro. Consequently, the stem cell membrane-coated nanoparticles had circulation for an extended time and escaped the immune system, thereby increasing their accumulation at the tumor site.
Stem cell membrane-coated nanoparticles were also applied to deliver small interfering RNA (siRNA) via magnetic hyperthermia therapy and imaging. Previous reports mentioned the preparation of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles using an MSC membrane that reduced the immune response.
Additionally, the CD44 adhesion receptors were preserved on the surface of the MSC membrane during preparation. These prepared nanovesicles were unrecognized by macrophages, which enabled their stability in blood circulation. The nanosize and tumor homing capacity of MSCs helped the nanovesicles generate a dark contrast in T2-weight magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Cell membrane-coated nanoparticles helped fabricate various targeted delivery strategies. Especially, stem cell membrane-coated nanoparticles have the following advantages: stem cells are easy to isolate and expand in vitro. Thus, multilineage potential and phenotypes could be preserved for more than 50 population doublings in vitro.
Stem cell membrane-coated nanoparticles also have an intrinsic capacity to target inflammation or tumor lesions. Hence, these nanoparticles were established for tumor therapy, building a strong foundation for stem cell membrane-mediated delivery systems.
On the other hand, stem cell membrane-coated nanoparticles have the following drawbacks: Despite various sources for collecting MSCs (UC-MSCs/BM-MSCs/ATMSCs), the number of cells obtained is limited, although iPSCs are relatively easy to fetch by reprogramming differentiated somatic cells, the reprogramming is a high-cost step, restricting the clinical applications of iPSCs.
Study suggests people who have had COVID-19 benefit from vaccination, even if they’ve delayed it. Immunity from COVID-19 appears to gather strength with more time between vaccination and infection, a new laboratory study from researchers at [...]
The incorporation of exotic DNA from wild relatives into wheat results in a remarkable yield increase of up to 50%, even in hot weather, surpassing elite lines without these genes. Amid a year of [...]
Australia has become the first country to recognise psychedelics as medicines, after the Therapeutic Goods Administration took researchers by surprise and approved the psychedelic substances in magic mushrooms and MDMA for use by people [...]
In a new study, scientists with the University of Florida have found that a combination of silver nanoparticles and antibiotics is effective against antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The researchers hope to turn this discovery into viable [...]
Peritoneal cancer is difficult to treat and has a poor survival prognosis. But a new and effective nanomedicine delivery system is offering some hope. The company is called NaDeNo and is well underway with [...]
According to a new study by researchers at Penn Medicine, ketamine, which is well-known as an anesthetic and is becoming increasingly popular as an antidepressant, dramatically reorganizes activity in the brain, almost as if [...]
A new immunotherapy releases cancer-killing cytokines only within the tumor. Researchers at the University of California San Francisco (UCSF) have developed a new T cell-based immunotherapy that selectively targets cancer cells, producing a powerful anti-cancer cytokine [...]
An AI was tasked with creating proteins with anti-microbial properties. Researchers then created a subset of the proteins and found some did the job. An AI has designed anti-microbial proteins that were then tested [...]
Treating cancer with combinations of drugs can be more effective than using a single drug. However, figuring out the optimal combination of drugs, and making sure that all of the drugs reach the right [...]
By one unique metric, we could approach technological singularity by the end of this decade, if not sooner. A translation company developed a metric, Time to Edit (TTE), to calculate the time it takes for professional [...]
Phase transition in early universe changes strength of interaction between dark and normal matter. Dark matter remains one of the greatest mysteries of modern physics. It is clear that it must exist, because without [...]
Summary: Researchers have developed a new family of nano-scale capsules capable of carrying CRISPR gene editing tools to different organs of the body before harmlessly dissolving. The capsules were able to enter the brains of [...]
An enzyme that defends human cells against viruses can help drive cancer evolution towards greater malignancy by causing myriad mutations in cancer cells, according to a study led by investigators at Weill Cornell Medicine. The [...]
Using a mouse model, Japanese researchers unleash the likely mechanism of action of Actinidia arguta (sarunashi) juice on lung cancer development. Lung cancer is a leading cause of death in Japan and across the [...]
When used as wearable medical devices, stretchy, flexible gas sensors can identify health conditions or issues by detecting oxygen or carbon dioxide levels in the breath or sweat. They also are useful for monitoring [...]
Novel drugs, such as vaccines against covid-19, among others, are based on drug transport using nanoparticles. Whether this drug transport is negatively influenced by an accumulation of blood proteins on the nanoparticle’s surface was [...]