- New variants of SARS-CoV-2 are more virulent and transmissible than the original variant of the virus.
- Health experts associate these variants of concern (VOCs) with increased risk of hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and death.
- Vaccination reduces the risks of severe disease and death even with the VOCs.
- However, even with increased vaccination, control measures are needed to reduce the spread of the VOCs.
The retrospective study, by the University of Toronto and appearing in the Canadian Medical Association Journal (CMAJ), looked at 212,326 cases in Ontario from February 7 to June 27, 2021. The study authors compared the risks of hospitalization, ICU admission, and death from the VOCs with those risks from non-VOC SARS-CoV-2 strains.
The researchers screened the cases for Alpha, Beta, Gamma, and Delta VOCs. Non-VOC infections made up 22.4% of the cases. More than three-quarters of the cases were Alpha, Beta, or Gamma, while 2.8% were probably Delta.
The authors note that before May 2021, there was no routine screening for the Delta variant, so it is likely that the numbers underestimate the prevalence of this variant.
Increased risk from the Delta variant
The present study found that all VOCs increased people’s risk of hospitalization, ICU admission, and death due to COVID-19.
However, the highest risks were from the Delta variant. In the Delta cases, there was a 108% increase in the risk of hospitalization, a 235% increased risk of ICU admission, and a 133% higher risk of death, compared with the original variant.
These effects were present even when the researchers adjusted the data for factors such as age, sex, vaccination status, and comorbidities.
Prof. William Schaffner, infectious diseases specialist at the Vanderbilt University Medical Center in Nashville, TN, commented:
“This important study from Canada reinforces the serious impact the Delta variant is having. It is well recognized that Delta is more contagious than other virus variants. This new study convincingly reinforces the finding that it also causes more severe disease.”
Speaking to Medical News Today, Dr. Christopher Coleman, assistant professor of infection immunology at the University of Nottingham in the U.K., highlighted the international relevance of the study.
He said, “Although this [Canadian] study has some limitations, as acknowledged by the authors, this is exactly the kind of study that helps ‘build a picture’ by showing that similar observations can be observed in a lot of different circumstances.”
“It is not something unique about the U.K. that means the Delta variant is associated with more dangerous infections only here,” he added.
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