Three individuals were admitted to the hospital (ages 46–56; to men and one woman) with a multiday history of symptoms associated with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and underwent contrast-enhanced thoracic CT due to worsening symptomatology. Three-dimensional (3D) digital models were created to visualise the extent of the disease within the respiratory system (figures 1 and 2) from the thin section (1 mm) data sets. All patients presented emergently with variable pulmonary symptoms ranging from mild to severe, including shortness of breath and all were febrile. Two of the patients were reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) positive for SARS-CoV-2 (figure 1B,D,F; figure 2C,D,G,H). The third patient was RT-PCR negative for SARS-CoV-2, but this was presumed to be a false-negative result given compelling clinical and imaging features indicative of COVID-19 (figures 1C,E and 2E,F). A fourth patient who presented to the emergency department and was suspected of having COVID-19 also underwent CT to assess for the possibility of pulmonary embolus (figures 1A and 2A,B). This individual tested negative for SARS-CoV-2, and the lungs were normal. All CT examinations were obtained using a Philips iCT 256 or iQon Spectral CT systems. Data were acquired using a 128×0.625 mm or 64×0.625 mm detector configuration with dual sampling, rotation time of 0.33 s (120 kVp 72 mAs).
Three-dimensional segmented surface models of normal, COVID-19 and suspected COVID-19 lungs in anterior view. (A) Healthy lung model of a 50-year-old man. (B) Lung model of a COVID-19-positive 46-year-old man with mild respiratory symptoms. (C) Lung model of a COVID-19-negative 56-year-old man with clinical suspicion for COVID-19. (D) Lung model of a COVID-19-positive 55-year-old woman with severe respiratory symptoms and ARDS. (E) C with a skeleton. (F) D but with the ARDS tissue made translucent to demonstrate the full extent of the ground glass opacities and consolidation throughout the parenchyma. ARDS, acute respiratory distress syndrome; C, consolidated infection; GGO, ground-glass opacities; HP, healthy parenchyma; PB, primary bronchus; TR, trachea. Colour key: blue, healthy tissue; yellow, consolidation and ground glass opacities; green, ARDS.
Three-dimensional (3D) segmented surface models of normal, COVID-19 and suspected COVID-19 lungs in posterior view (left) and coronal views with accompanying simplified diagrammatic illustrations of the coronal CTs demonstrating the infection sites. Healthy lungs of a 50-year-old man as a segmented 3D model in posterior view (A), a coronal contrast enhanced CT slice (B) and a diagrammatic illustration of B (C). COVID-19-positive 46-year-old man (mild respiratory symptoms) as a segmented 3D model in posterior view (D), a coronal contrast enhanced CT slice (E) and a diagrammatic illustration of E (F). Lungs of a COVID-19-negative 56-year-old man with clinical suspicion for COVID-19 as a segmented 3D model in posterior view (G), a coronal contrast-enhanced CT slice (H) and a diagrammatic illustration of H (I). Lungs of a COVID-19-positive 55-year-old woman with ARDS as a segmented 3D model in posterior view (J), a coronal contrast enhanced CT slice (K) and a diagrammatic illustration of K (L). Models demonstrate the relationship, distribution and full extent of the disease in 3D versus the single CT slice which only provides information on the localised position of the infection. ARDS, acute respiratory distress syndrome; C, consolidated infection; GGO, ground-glass opacities; HP, healthy parenchyma. Colour key: blue, healthy tissue; yellow, consolidation and ground glass opacities; green, ARDS. Images not to (relative) scale.
Image Credit: BMJ
News This Week
Brain stimulation paired with a nose spray comprised of nanoparticles can increase recovery after ischemic stroke in an animal model, according to scientists from Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University and other universities in China. The nasal spray is [...]
Increasing drug resistance could leave us powerless to fight infections we now consider routine, and scientists are urgently searching for answers. It was just a urinary tract infection (UTI). Helen Osment, a fundraiser from Hertfordshire, had [...]
Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science & Technology (DGIST, President Yang Kook) Professor Hongsoo Choi’s team of the Department of Robotics and Mechatronics Engineering collaborated with Professor Sung-Won Kim’s team at Seoul St. Mary’s Hospital, [...]
Tiny nets woven from DNA strands can ensnare the spike protein of the virus that causes COVID-19, lighting up the virus for a fast-yet-sensitive diagnostic test—and also impeding the virus from infecting cells, opening [...]
Roughly two decades ago, a strategy called optogenetics emerged to control brain activity with lasers. It uses viruses to insert genes into cells that make them sensitive to light. Optogenetics has revolutionized neuroscience by giving researchers [...]
Shigella bacteria, which causes Shigellosis, is the primary cause of bacterial diarrhea and diarrheal death among juveniles under five years of age. Because of the antibiotic resistance of Shigella strains, no commercial vaccines are available to date. [...]
Scientists have built microscopic robots equipped with electronic “brains” that are capable of walking autonomously. A team from Cornell University in the US developed the solar-powered bots as part of research into a new generation of [...]
Blood samples from patients with long COVID who are still suffering from fatigue and shortness of breath after a year show signs of autoimmune disease, according to a study published today (Thursday) [...]
High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) is among the deadliest human cancers and its prognosis remains extremely poor. An article published in Advanced Science explored the self-therapeutic properties of gold nanoparticles to identify a molecular axis that [...]
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity and lyse microbial cells by interaction with biomembranes, offering great potential in designing new therapeutics. The antimicrobial resistance (AMR) caused due to overuse of [...]
Tumor cells are notoriously good at evading the human immune system; they put up physical walls, wear disguises and handcuff the immune system with molecular tricks. Now, UC San Francisco researchers have developed a [...]
Hyperspectral microscopy is an advanced visualization technique that combines hyperspectral imaging with state-of-the-art optics and computer software to enable rapid identification of nanomaterials. Since hyperspectral datacubes are large, their acquisition is complicated and time-consuming. [...]
Malignant brain tumors are cancerous growth in the brain with the possibility of spreading to other parts of the central nervous system (CNS). Brain tumors are highly invasive and have devastating consequences, poor prognosis, [...]
An ultrathin invention could make future computing, sensing and encryption technologies remarkably smaller and more powerful by helping scientists control a strange but useful phenomenon of quantum mechanics, according to new research recently published [...]
Methacrylate-based materials are often used in bone cement and dental resins. However, they have high failure rates as they undergo damage within ten years, impacting the quality of patient’s life and increasing healthcare costs. [...]
Early diagnosis of an infectious viral disease can help the patients and health care professionals monitor the outbreaks accurately and provide treatment at the early stage of a disease, avoiding any detrimental consequences. The [...]